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Head and Neck Cancer

Head and neck cancers are tumours that start in the squamous cells that line the mucosal surfaces of the head and neck (for example, those inside the mouth, throat, and voice box). Squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck are the name given to these cancers. Head and neck cancers can also start in the salivary glands, sinuses, or muscles or nerves in the head and neck, although they are considerably less prevalent than squamous cell carcinomas.

Types

Oropharyngeal Cancer: Cancerous cells are identified in the tissues of the central region of the throat, also known as the oropharynx or pharynx.

Hypopharyngeal Cancer: Cancerous cells are identified in the tissues of the hypopharynx—the bottom region of the throat, also known as the pharynx.

Laryngeal Cancer: Cancerous cells are present in the tissues of the larynx in this condition (voice box). The larynx (voice box) is positioned in the neck behind the thyroid gland. The vocal cords are located in the larynx and vibrate and generate sound when air is directed against them. To produce a person's voice, the sound echoes via the pharynx, mouth, and nose.

Lips and Oral Cavity Cancer: Cancerous cells are discovered in the tissues of the lip or mouth in this condition. The oral cavity consists of the front two-thirds of the tongue, the upper and lower gums, the lining of the inside of the cheeks and lips, the floor of the mouth beneath the tongue, the bony top of the mouth (hard palate), and the little space behind the wisdom teeth.

Nasopharynx Cancer: Cancerous cells are detected in the tissues of the nasopharynx, located behind the nose.

Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer: Cancerous cells are seen in the tissues of the paranasal sinuses or nasal cavity in this condition. The sinuses are tiny, hollow pockets located surrounding the nose. They produce mucus that prevents the nose from drying up and produce sounds when a person speaks or sings.

Salivary Gland Cancer: Cancerous cells are present in the tissues of the salivary glands in this condition. The salivary glands produce saliva to keep it moist and to aid in the digestion of meals. Major salivary gland clusters may be seen behind the tongue, on the sides of the face right in front of the ears, and beneath the jawbone. Minor salivary gland on front of the palet and tongue

Sarcoma of the Soft Tissue: Cancerous cells develop in the soft tissues. Muscles, connective tissues (tendons), and fat are examples of soft tissues in the body.

Thyroid Cancer: Thyroid cancer is a disorder in which malignant cells are discovered in the thyroid gland's tissues. The thyroid gland is located in the front neck. The thyroid gland generates hormones that aid in the functioning of the body. Thyroid cancer is classified into four categories depending on how the cancer cells appear under a microscope: papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic.

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